Sunday, August 8, 2010
The emergency action principles are:
1. Survey the scene.
2. Conduct a primate survey and care for life-threatening problems.
3. Conduct a secondary survey, when appropriate and care for additional problems.
These actions, done in this order, can ensure your safety and that of the victim's chance of survival.
SURVEY THE SCENE
Once you recognize that an emergency has occurred and decided to act, you must make sure that emergency scene is safe for you and any bystanders. Take time to survey the scene and answer these questions:
1. Is the scene safe?
2. What happened?
3. How many victims are there?
4. Can bystanders help?
When you survey the scene, look for anything that may threaten your safety and that of the victim and bystanders. Example of dangers that may be present are fallen power lines, falling rocks, traffic, fire, smoke, dangerous fumes, extreme weather and deep or swift-moving water. If any of these or other dangers are threatening, do not approach the victim. Call emergency personnel immediately for help. Nothing is gained by risking your own safety. An emergency that begins with one victim could end up with two if you are hurt. Leave dangerous situations for emergency professionals who have the training and proper equipment to handle them. If you suspect the scene is unsafe, wait and watch until emergency personnel arrive. If conditions change, you may then be able to approach the victim.
Find out what happened. Look around for clues about what caused the emergency and the type and extent of the victim's injuries. By looking around, you may discover a situation that requires your immediate action. As you approach the victim, take in the whole picture. Nearby objects, such as shattered glass, a fallen ladder or a spilled bottle of medicine, might tell you what happened. If the victim is unconscious, your survey of the scene may be the only way to tell what happened. Look carefully for more than one victim because you may not spot everyone at first. For example, in a car crash, an open door may be a clue that a victim is bleeding or screaming loudly, you may overlook another victim who is silent and unconscious. It is easy to overlook an infant or small child. Ask anyone present how many people may be involved. If you find more than one victim, ask bystanders for help.
Look for bystanders who can help or who can help or who may be able to tell you what happened or help in other ways. A bystander who knows the victim may know of any relevant medical problems or allergies. Bystanders may call emergency professionals for help, meet and direct the ambulance to your location, keep the area free of unnecessary traffic or help you provide care. If there is no one nearby, shout for help to summon someone who can help you.
CONDUCT A PRIMARY SURVEY FOR LIFE-THREATENING CONDITIONS
In every emergency situation, you must first look for conditions that are an immediate threat to the victim's life. This is called the primary survey.
In the primary survey, you check each of the following:
1. Conscious state.
5. Severe bleeding.
CHECK A SECONDARY SURVEY
If you find any life-threatening conditions during the primary survey, do not waste time with the secondary survey.Check the airway, breathing, circulation at regular intervals, and provide care only for the life- threatening conditions. Once you are certain that there are no life- threatening conditions needing attention, you can begin the secondary survey. The secondary survey is a systematic method of finding other injuries or conditions that may need care. These are injuries or conditions that are not immediately life- threatening but could become so if not attended to. To establish a complete picture, you need to obtain the history of the incident, the symptoms described by the victim and any additional signs that you may observe. For example, you might find possible broken bones, minor bleeding, or a specific medical condition such as epilepsy.
The secondary survey has three basic steps:
1. Question the victim and bystanders.
2. Check the vital signs.
3. Do a head-to-toe examination.